D4 – Monitoring the efficacy of action C4 – IN PROGRESS


Target bird species: Casmerodius albus, Egretta garzetta, Circus cyaneus, Lullula arborea
Lepidoptera target species: Lycaena dispar. Other bird species (not intervention targets, but monitoring targets – wintering or migratory): Gallinago gallinago, Vanellus vanellus, Numenius arquata, Athene noctua, Alauda arvensis, Turdus iliacus, Anthus pratensis, Carduelis cannabina, Fringilla montifringilla, Emberiza calandra.

On 31/10/2020 the activities under the responsibility of FLA were completed. As specified in action D1, also in this case the monitoring activity will continue in 2021 under the responsibility of the Ticino Park. The assignment is in progress because it is essential to detect the presence of the species in the winter submersion period.


The activity continues and in the wet plain submerged during the autumn period for birdlife 12 target species have been recorded in the ex-post campaigns and 8 in the ex-post campaigns.

Lycaena dispar was monitored in 2019 from March to August for a total of 80 field trips. The target species was found in the humid plains in the ex-post countryside in all areas of intervention as well as 41 other species belonging to the families of Hesperidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae.


The monitoring activity began regularly in January 2017.

Monitoring of birdlife

In the reference period 1/06/2017 – 30/09/2018, the monitoring took place every 15 days, for a total of 32 monitoring for each area, carried out through 83 field trips.

Until December 2017, the monitoring covered:

  1. unmanaged rots, which could potentially be involved in the winter flooding provided for in Action C.4 of the LIFE project;
  2. marcite managed with winter flooding, which could potentially be involved in the autumn flooding provided for in Action C.4 of the LIFE project;

from December 2017 to September 2018, runs in which the winter flooding provided for Action C.4 was activated.

In areas where Action C.4 was activated (management of marcite) and in non-intervention areas, n. 19 species of Community interest, of which n. 8 are target species of the LIFE project. Other n. 23 species of European-wide conservation interest classified as SPEC – Species of European Conservation Concern (BirdLife International 2017), 4 of which classified as top priority (SPEC 1).

All data have been archived in GIS (WGS84 UTM32) with attribute table organized in the following minimum fields: species name, X coordinate, Y coordinate, date (numeric format dd / mm / yy), number (where possible precise otherwise estimated) , Note.

Monitoring of Lycaena dispar

Lycaena dispar was monitored in n. 6 areas. The monitoring activity was implemented through the execution of transects (buffer 2.5 m right and sn + 5 mh), repeated every 15 days, from May to October in 2017 and from March to October in 2018 for a total of 44 field exits.

Lycaena dispar has been detected at least once in all the marches registered except for the Bernate station. The largest number of species found was found in the Portalupa station (specifically in the Portalupa Sud station with 36 total species surveyed).

Although the target species has been detected in almost all areas of investigation, it is currently present with small populations.


In January 2017, the monitoring of wintering birdlife was started by FLA in some rotten areas, as well as in areas potentially suitable for management such as rotted or wet meadows within the scope of action C4. Rots and damp meadows subject to action under action C4 are not currently known and will be identified during 2017, as also specified in the text of action D4 in the application form. Monitoring activities were therefore started:

  • in marcite activated (not within the LIFE project) in winter 2016-2017, for the purpose of future comparison with those activated within the LIFE project as well as to draw indications for the selection of suitable areas for the implementation of the C4 action ;
  • in meadows that could potentially be subject to intervention (rotten or flooded meadows) in the context of action C4, as they are suited to their realization, in order to monitor the ornithic community hosted by these environments when not subject to flooding and to carry out a ex-ante monitoring if these areas were selected to carry out interventions in action C4.
  • During 2017, monitoring of the Lepidoptera was also started, also in this case in areas selected according to the above criteria. From winter 2017-2018, ornithological monitoring was activated in the areas where the interventions envisaged by Action C.4 were started. and so it will also be for the monitoring of Lepidoptera from March 2018. Monitoring is in progress.

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